BigPipe is a Drupal module that was added as an 'experimental' module in Drupal 8.1. BigPipe allows PHP responses to be streamed in-progress so authenticated end users can recieve a cached response very quickly, with placeholders for more dynamic (harder to cache) content that are filled in during the same request.

To do this, BigPipe requires an environment configured to allow the authenticated request response to be streamed from PHP all the way through to the client. All parts of the web stack that intermediate the connection have to have output buffering disabled so the response stream can flow through.

Drupal VM's default configuration uses Apache with the mod_proxy_fastcgi module to connect to PHP-FPM, which isn't the most optimal configuration for BigPipe, and requires gzip compression to be disabled, so you should either switch to Nginx or consider further customizing the Apache configuration.

Drupal VM's Varnish configuration works with BigPipe out of the box, as it allows the backend response to be streamed whenever BigPipe is enabled (it outputs a Surrogate-Control: BigPipe/1.0 header to tell Varnish when to stream the response).

PHP configuration

BigPipe doesn't require any particular modifications to PHP in Drupal VM's default configuration. However, for some scenarios, you might want to disable php's output_buffering entirely by setting php_output_buffering: "Off" in config.yml, or change the output_buffering level from it's default of 4096 bytes.

Nginx configuration

There is no extra configuration required to get BigPipe working with Nginx.

Nginx is the recommended way to use BigPipe, for the following reasons:

  • It's easier to configure Nginx to handle hundreds (or more) concurrent connections through to PHP-FPM than mod_php, and more widely used than the other compatible Apache CGI modules mod_fcgid and mod_fastcgi
  • Nginx intelligently disables output buffering and gzip if the X-Accel-Buffering: no header is present (BigPipe sets this header automatically). This means gzip and buffering can be enabled for most requests, and disabled on-the-fly by BigPipe.

Apache configuration

Apache has three primary means of interacting with PHP applications like Drupal: mod_php, mod_fastcgi, and mod_proxy_fcgi. Drupal VM uses mod_proxy_fcgi, which is the most widely used and supported method of using Apache with PHP-FPM for the best scalability and memory management with Apache + PHP.

For all of these methods, you have to make sure mod_deflate gzip compression is disabled; you can do this by adding the following line immediately after the ProxyPassMatch line under a host in the apache_vhosts list inside config.yml:

SetEnv no-gzip 1

This will disable the mod_deflate module for any requests inside that directory.

If you want to switch Apache to use mod_php instead of proxying requests through PHP-FPM, you can make the following changes in config.yml:

  1. Add libapache2-mod-php7.0 to extra_packages in config.yml.
  2. Delete the extra_parameters under any Drupal site in the list of apache_vhosts (so there is no ProxyPassMatch rule).

You can also disable PHP-FPM and remove the two proxy entries from apache_mods_enabled if you don't want to use PHP-FPM with Apache at all, but that's optional; it won't break anything to run Apache with mod_php and mod_proxy_fastcgi at the same time.