You can deploy a codebase directly inside Drupal VM via Git. You can deploy a Git-based Drupal site directly into a shared folder, or you can even deploy inside Drupal VM's own filesystem. The latter option offers better performance than any of the other deployment methods, since Drupal VM can use native filesystem caches and disk access.
This is also the recommended method for deploying Drupal sites to Drupal VM when used in production
Deploying Drupal via Git¶
TODO: See https://github.com/geerlingguy/drupal-vm/issues/1258.